書きかえ問題の出題傾向

この記事は約13分で読めます。

書きかえ問題を分類してみました。パターンが決まっているものも多いですが、中には発想の転換が必要なものもあり、クイズ的な面白さがある問題も見られます。

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現在完了に関する問題

現在完了は今の状況を過去と結びつけてあらわすことができる形です。なので二文を一文にする形式が多いですね。過去形と現在形の二文がある場合は、このパターンを考えるといいかもしれません。now や still という英単語もよく出てきます。

He broke his leg, so he can’t walk now.
= He (   ) (   ) his leg.

【解答】has broken

George and Toshi met three years ago. They are good friends now.
George and Toshi (   ) (   ) each other for three years.

【解答】have known

Our dog is six years old. We first had him five years ago.
We (   ) (   ) our dog for five years.

【解答】have had

We moved to Osaka five years ago, and we still live there.
We (   ) (   ) in Osaka for five years.

【解答】have lived

My brother got sick last night. He is still sick.
My brother (   ) (   ) sick since last night.

【解答】has been

It became warm yesterday, and it is still warm now.
It (   ) (   ) warm since yesterday.

【解答】has been

It started to rain this morning. It’s still raining now.
It’s (   ) rainy (   ) this morning.

【解答】been / since

This is my first visit to Hawaii.
I’ve (   ) (   ) Hawaii before.

【解答】never visited

I know Tomohiro. I first met him five years ago.
I (   ) (   ) Tomohiro for five years.

【解答】have known

It is three months since I received a letter from you last.
I (   ) (   ) from you for three months.

【解答】haven’t heard

It has been a long time since I saw you last.
I (   ) (   ) you for a long time.

【解答】haven’t seen

This is the most exciting movie I’ve ever seen.
I’ve (   ) (   ) such an exciting movie.

【解答】never seen

My grandfather died ten years ago.
My grandfather (   ) been (   ) for ten years.

【解答】have / dead

This is the first time for me to go to China.
I have (   ) (   ) to China before.

【解答】never been

I went to Boston and came back just now.
I have just (   ) (   ) Boston.

【解答】been to

My mother went to the supermarket, so she isn’t here now.
My mother (   ) (   ) to the supermarket.

【解答】has gone

He is the last man who reached the top of the mountain.
Nobody after him (   ) (   ) the top of the mountain.

【解答】has reached

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不定詞に関する問題

不定詞の出題は多種にわたっています。基本的なパターンでは、It … for ~ to に関する書きかえが多い印象です。

Speaking English is very hard.
(   ) (   ) English is very hard.

【解答】To speak

It is difficult to play the guitar.
(   ) the guitar is difficult.

【解答】Playing

She played the piano easily.
(   ) was easy for her (   ) play the piano.

【解答】It / to

I cannot go next week.
(   ) (   ) not possible for me (   ) go next week.

【解答】It is / to

There was no food in the refrigerator.
There was (   ) (   ) eat in the refrigerator.

【解答】nothing to

Masao is very hungry now, so he wants some food.
Masao is very hungry now, so he wants (   ) to (   ).

【解答】something / eat

I was very surprised when I heard the news.
I was very surprised (   ) (   ) the news.

【解答】to hear

I saw my old friend. I was very happy.
I was very happy (   ) (   ) my old friend.

【解答】to see

I hope that she will drive me home.
I want (   ) (   ) (   ) me home.

【解答】her to drive

疑問詞+不定詞に関する問題

疑問詞+不定詞では how to ~ に関する問題の出題が多いです。can と how to ~ のセットはよく見かけます。

Can your mother drive a car?
(   ) your mother know (   ) to drive a car?

【解答】Does / how

I know the way to use this phone.
I know (   ) (   ) use this phone.

【解答】how to

Please tell me the way to Kyoto Station.
Do you know (   ) (   ) get to Kyoto Station?

【解答】how to

I don’t know how I should answer this question.
I don’t know (   ) (   ) answer this question.

【解答】how to

Where should I go? I don’t know that.
I don’t know (   ) (   ) go.

【解答】where to

I’m not sure when I should phone him.
I’m not sure when (   ) (   ) him.

【解答】to phone

I don’t know what to say.
I don’t know what I (   ) (   ).

【解答】should say

too … to ・ enough to 構文に関する問題

too … to や enough to は so … that と絡めて出題されることが多いですね。

I was so tired that I couldn’t do my homework.
I was (   ) tired (   ) do my homework.

【解答】too / to

This story is so difficult that we can’t understand it.
This story is (   ) difficult (   ) us (   ) understand.

【解答】too / for / to

This melon is too expensive for me to buy.
This melon is (   ) expensive that I (   ) buy it.

【解答】so / can’t

Naomi was too tired to do her homework.
Naomi was (   ) tired that she (   ) do her homework.

【解答】so / couldn’t

The homework was too difficult for me to do.
The homework was (   ) difficult (   ) I couldn’t do it.

【解答】so / that

That boy is not safe enough for the children to play with.
That boy is (   ) (   ) for the children to play with.

【解答】too dangerous

Bill is so rich that he can buy a new house.
Bill is rich (   ) (   ) buy a new house.

【解答】enough to

Because Yuka is rich, she can buy anything.
Yuka is rich (   ) (   ) buy anything.

【解答】enough to

My grandfather was strong enough to live alone.
My grandfather was (   ) strong that he (   ) live alone.

【解答】so / couldn’t

関係代名詞・分詞に関する問題

関係代名詞と分詞の形容詞的用法は、お互いの書きかえ問題として出題されることが多いです。時制をうっかりすることが多いので、注意しましょう。

The picture was good. It was painted by the teacher.
The picture (   ) (   ) the teacher was good.

【解答】painted by

That boy was Tom. He was singing with Nancy.
That boy (   ) with Nancy (   ) Tom.

【解答】singing / was

Mike took these pictures. They are very beautiful.
These pictures (   ) (   ) Mike are very beautiful.

【解答】taken by

I have a friend who lives in China.
I have a friend (   ) in China.

【解答】living

The picture which Ken took is beautiful.
The picture (   ) (   ) Ken is beautiful.

【解答】taken by

These are the presents my grandmother gave me.
These are the presents (   ) to me (   ) my grandmother.

【解答】given / by

This is the letter written by Testsuji yesterday.
This is the letter Tetsuji (   ) yesterday.

【解答】wrote

Do you know the girl named Nancy?
Do you know the girl (   ) is named Nancy?

【解答】who

This is a letter written by him.
This is a letter (   ) (   ) (   ).

【解答】which he wrote

Satoko has two friends living in Australia.
Satoko has two friends (   ) (   ) in Australia.

【解答】who live

This is the book Tom reads every day.
This is the book (   ) is (   ) by Tom every day.

【解答】which / read

Look at that girl. She has long, black hair.
Look at that girl (   ) (   ) long, black hair.

【解答】who has

What is the animal with long ears?
What is the animal (   ) (   ) long ears?

【解答】which has

The man with long hair is my brother, Ken.
The man (   ) (   ) long hair is my brother, Ken.

【解答】who has

比較に関する問題

比較は not as ~ as と比較級との書きかえの出題が多い印象です。そのほかには「これまでに見たことがない」→「一番~だ」という、現在完了と最上級との組み合わせもあります。

Her question is easier than yours.
Your question is (   ) (   ) than hers.

【解答】more difficult

Yuri can’t run as fast as Miki.
Miki runs (   ) than Yuri.

【解答】faster

Your brother is not as tall as Ken.
Ken is (   ) (   ) your brother.

【解答】taller than

Your bike is newer than mine.
My bike is (   ) (   ) new (   ) yours.

【解答】not as / as

Emi runs faster than Takayo. Takayo runs faster than Kazumi.
Emi runs the (   ) (   ) the three.

【解答】fastest of

My house was built 50 years ago. Your house was built 50 years ago, too.
Your house is (   ) old (   ) mine.

【解答】as / as

Japan and Germany are about the same size.
Japan is about (   ) big (   ) Germany.

【解答】as / as

This ball is smaller than the two other balls.
This ball is (   ) (   ) of the three.

【解答】the smallest

I have never seen such a beautiful flower before.
This is (   ) (   ) (   ) flower I have ever seen.

【解答】the most

You must read as many books as possible.
You must read as many books as (   ) (   ).

【解答】you can

Which is your favorite, summer or winter?
Which do you (   ) (   ), summer or winter?

【解答】like better

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