【解説】2008年センター試験英語第6問「長文読解」

2008年度センター試験英語解説共通テスト・センター英語解説
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問1

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。

(1) My niece, Ann, is in her third year at university. She has recently started her job search. When she entered the university, she wanted to be an architect and planned to apply for work in an architectural firm. But as she prepared for her job search, she learned that the way people work has changed a lot in the last few years. She discovered that much of the change has occurred because of what is called the IT Revolution. The “IT (Information Technology) Revolution” refers to the dramatic change in the way information is perceived and used in today’s world.

問1
Ann realized that people today work in ways unimagined before because (  ).

1. the amount of data on the Internet can no longer be dealt with effectively
2. the demand for architects has risen sharply over the last couple of decades
3. they think the impact of the IT Revolution is already a thing of the past
4. they deal with information entirely differently than in the past

【解説】

Ann realized that people today work in ways unimagined before because (  ).
アンは、今の人々が以前は想像もしなかった方法で働いていることに気づきました。なぜなら(  )。

本文の段落 (1) の4行目に she learned 6行目に because があるので、この周辺に問1のヒントがあるとわかりますね。

本文は because of what is called the IT Revolution. と続きます。つまり問題文の(  ) にも「IT革命」的なものが入るはずです。この時点でIT革命とは何かをしっかり理解し、それを踏まえて選択肢から正解を選べる人がいたら、それはそれで素晴らしいです。

しかし、わからないからって心配する必要もないです。ちゃんと次の分でIT革命の説明がされているのです。

The “IT Revolution” refers to the dramatic change in the way information is perceived and used in today’s world.
「IT革命」とは今日の世界で、情報が感知されたり使われたりする方法の劇的な変化のことである」

(ちなみに the way の後ろには関係副詞の how が省略されています)

選択肢を確認しましょう。

1. the amount of data on the Internet can no longer be dealt with effectively
インターネット上のデータの量が効果的に処理できなくなった
2. the demand for architects has risen sharply over the last couple of decades
建築家の需要は、過去20年間で急激に増加しています。
3. they think the impact of the IT Revolution is already a thing of the past
彼らはIT革命の影響はすでに過去のものであると考えています
4. they deal with information entirely differently than in the past
以前とはまったく異なる方法で情報を処理します

本文の「the dramatic change in the way information is perceived and used / 情報が感知されたり使われたりする方法の劇的な変化」から考えると、選択肢「4」が正解です。

【正解】4

問2

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。

(2) Over the past 12 to 15 years, the amount and types of data available on the Internet and, in particular, the speed at which we can process the data, have increased to an extent few people could have imagined. These developments have led to new ways of thinking about how we use information and how we work in information-rich environments. Simply put, doing business no longer relies on location; new information-sharing software has made cooperation at a distance convenient and efficient.

問2
The statement “doing business no longer relies on location” implies that (  ).

1. business people must be physically close to each other to do their work
2. business people need to travel abroad more often in order to do their jobs
3. people feel that using information is more important than making profits
4. people who are not in the same place can successfully work as a team

【解説】

The statement “doing business no longer relies on location” implies that (  ).
「ビジネスを行うことはもはや場所に依存しない」という記述は、(  )を意味します。

本文の段落(2)に doing business no longer relies on location があるので、この周辺に問2のヒントがあるとわかります。

その本文の続きの英文を見ると、こうあります。

; new information-sharing software has made cooperation at a distance convenient and efficient.
「新しい情報共有ソフトのおかげで、離れた場所での協力が便利で効率的になった」

選択肢はこうなっています。

1. business people must be physically close to each other to do their work
ビジネスマンは、仕事をするために互いに物理的に近くにいる必要があります
2. business people need to travel abroad more often in order to do their jobs
ビジネスマンは仕事をするためにもっと頻繁に海外に旅行する必要があります
3. people feel that using information is more important than making profits
人々は、情報を使用することが利益を上げることよりも重要であると感じています
4. people who are not in the same place can successfully work as a team
同じ場所にいない人はチームとしてうまく働くことができます

「離れた場所での協力が便利で効率的になった」のですから、選択肢「4」が正解です。

【正解】4

問3

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。

(3) As a result, many new business models have appeared. One such model is a large corporation arranging to have another company, often located in a different country, perform essential tasks. This became possible with the growth of reliable and secure communications and the ability to move massive amounts of data over long distances in an instant. An early example of this arrangement is in the field of accounting. A company in the United States, for instance, first scans all its bills, orders, and wage payments into the computer and sends the documents to an accounting center in, say, Costa Rica. Basic accounting activity is then carried out at that site. Next, the data is returned via the Internet to the original company, where high-level analysis is done.

問3
In the example described in paragraph (3), the initial work takes place (  ).

1. in the United States and the work is completed in Costa Rica
2. in Costa Rica and the work is completed in the United States
3. in the United States, some work is done in Costa Rica, and the work is completed in the United States
4. in Costa Rica, some work is done in the United States, and the work is completed in Costa Rica

【解説】

In the example described in paragraph (3), the initial work takes place (  ).
段落(3)で説明した例では、最初の仕事は(  ) で行なわれる

本文の段落 (3) に example があるので、その周辺に問3のヒントがあるとわかりますね。

問題文の initial という英単語は「最初の」の意味。知らなくても「イニシャル」から想像できるとよいですね。つまり、「最初の仕事は(  )で行なわれる」と書いてあります。

選択肢の内容は、こうなっています。

1. in the United States and the work is completed in Costa Rica
アメリカで行われ、そしてその仕事はコスタリカで完了します。
2. in Costa Rica and the work is completed in the United States
コスタリカで行われ、そしてその仕事はアメリカで完了します。
3. in the United States, some work is done in Costa Rica, and the work is completed in the United States
アメリカで行われ、一部の仕事はコスタリカで行われ、そしてその仕事はアメリカで完了します。
4. in Costa Rica, some work is done in the United States, and the work is completed in Costa Rica
コスタリカで行われ、一部の仕事はアメリカで行われ、そしてその仕事はコスタリカで完了します。

本文の example の次の英文が、この問題の該当部分になります。

A company in the United States, for instance, first scans all its bills, orders, and wage payments into the computer and sends the documents to an accounting center in, say, Costa Rica.
たとえば、米国の企業は、最初にすべての請求書、注文、および賃金の支払いをコンピューターにスキャンし、そのドキュメントをコスタリカなどの会計センターに送信します。

まず最初に「A company in the United states,」とあります。最初はアメリカですね。なので、選択肢の 2. 4. が消えます。

次に Costa Rica と出てきますが、これは「1」と「3」のどちらの選択肢にも共通しています。

本文の最後は、こうなっています。

Next, the data is returned via the Internet to the original company, where high-level analysis is done.
次に、データはインターネットを介して元の会社に返され、そこで高レベルの分析が行われます。

最後に「return / 戻す」や「original company / 最初の会社」などがあることに注目しましょう。

アメリカからコスタリカに行ったものを「戻す」なら当然アメリカに帰ってくるし、「最初の会社」の場所はアメリカにあることもすでに確認しましたね。

ということで「アメリカ」→「コスタリカ」→「アメリカ」の選択肢「3」が正解です。

【正解】3

問4

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。
(4) Another example of this type of arrangement is reliance on overseas call centers, which have become increasingly common. It has become possible for a telephone operator in India to answer a customer-service call from anywhere in the world, respond directly to the customer and offer a satisfactory solution, at a far lower cost to the company than ever before. Many large companies now depend on such call centers. Today in Japan, when you call a toll-free number, there is a chance that someone in Chingtao, China will answer the phone in Japanese to help solve your problem.

問4
According to paragraph (4), the IT Revolution has (  ).

1. not reduced the cost of doing business
2. influenced where companies locate their call centers
3. increased the demand for people who speak Chinese
4. eliminated the need for call centers

【解説】

本文第4段落を見ると、

Another example of this type of arrangement is reliance on overseas call centers, which have become increasingly common.
「このタイプの取り合わせのもう1つの例は、海外のコールセンターに依頼することだ。それはますます常識になってきた」

この段階で、この段落は「コールセンター」の話をしているとわかり、海外に依頼することが常識といっている。

選択肢をチェックすると、こうなっています。

1. not reduced the cost of doing business
「ビジネスのコストを減らさなかった」

うっかりしやすいですが、not があるので不正解。

3. increased the demand for people who speak Chinese
「中国語を話す人の需要が増えた」

場所が中国でも日本語をしゃべっているので不正解。

4. eliminated the need for call centers
「コールセンターの必要性を取り除いた」

必要性がないのではなく、場所がどこでもよいということなので不正解。

ということで消去法により、正解は「2」ですね。

2. influenced where companies locate their call centers
「会社がコールセンターを置く場所に影響した」

【正解】2

問5

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。

(3) As a result, many new business models have appeared. One such model is a large corporation arranging to have another company, often located in a different country, perform essential tasks. This became possible with the growth of reliable and secure communications and the ability to move massive amounts of data over long distances in an instant. An early example of this arrangement is in the field of accounting. A company in the United States, for instance, first scans all its bills, orders, and wage payments into the computer and sends the documents to an accounting center in, say, Costa Rica. Basic accounting activity is then carried out at that site. Next, the data is returned via the Internet to the original company, where high-level analysis is done.
(4) Another example of this type of arrangement is reliance on overseas call centers, which have become increasingly common. It has become possible for a telephone operator in India to answer a customer-service call from anywhere in the world, respond directly to the customer and offer a satisfactory solution, at a far lower cost to the company than ever before. Many large companies now depend on such call centers. Today in Japan, when you call a toll-free number, there is a chance that someone in Chingtao, China will answer the phone in Japanese to help solve your problem.
(5) A second business model made possible by the IT Revolution is one in which work is divided into smaller, more specific tasks performed by individuals in different geographical locations. For example, freelance specialists who may be living at a great distance from each other can work together to produce a new semiconductor design. A member of the group living in California does some initial work on the project and uploads the result onto a server. A colleague in Japan spends the day making further additions to the design. Next someone in
Israel accesses it and does his/her portion of the job. Finally the group member in California downloads it and gives it a final check. Thus, freelance specialists in different parts of the world collaborate to complete a single project.
(6) A similar example is that of a commercial artist who works in the privacy of her beachside home in Hawaii to create a mail-order catalog for a client in Paris. She uses pictures taken by a photographer in Australia, adds text composed by a writer in Canada, includes artwork she created on her computer, and sends the finished product out to the client for final approval. All this is done digitally and according to each worker’s own schedule. In this way, the best talent in the world can be chosen for each task.
(7) With the knowledge she has acquired in the course of her job search, Ann now understands how the nature of work has changed as a result of the IT Revolution. Although she is still interested in architecture, Ann now realizes that this field offers a broader variety of opportunities. Rather than studying architectural design itself, Ann has decided to become an expert in the specifications and materials that architects need for their designs. She also now knows that there is often not enough work in one office for a specialist of type. However, she is confident she can work as a freelance specialist in collaboration with a variety of people in different countries. Ann now looks forward to taking advantage of the career opportunities that the IT Revolution has opened up.

問5
If we divide paragraphs (3) through (7) into three groups according to their topics, which grouping is most appropriate?
「段落(3)~(7)までを3つのグループに分けるとしたら、どのグループ分けが最も適当か?」

Group 1Group 2Group 3
1(3)(4) (5)(6) (7)
2(3) (4)(5) (6)(7)
3(3) (4)(5)(6) (7)
4(3)(4) (5) (6)(7)

【解説】

段落 (4) (5) (6) の最初の言葉を見ていきます。

(4) Another example 「その他の例」
(5) A second business model 「二番目のビジネスモデル」
(6) A similar example 「似たような例」

まず段落 (6) が「似たような例」ということなので、段落 (5) とグループであることが想像でき、選択肢2.4.に絞られる。

段落 (5) が「二番目のビジネスモデル」ということは、その前が「一番目のビジネスモデル」の話であるだろうし、段落(4) が「その他の例」ということは、段落 (3) で「一番目のビジネスモデル」の例があり、そこで言い切れなかったものが(4) で書かれているとわかる。

つまり (3) (4) はグループなので正解は2。

【正解】2

問6

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。

(7) With the knowledge she has acquired in the course of her job search, Ann now understands how the nature of work has changed as a result of the IT Revolution. Although she is still interested in architecture, Ann now realizes that this field offers a broader variety of opportunities. Rather than studying architectural design itself, Ann has decided to become an expert in the specifications and materials that architects need for their designs. She also now knows that there is often not enough work in one office for a specialist of type. However, she is confident she can work as a freelance specialist in collaboration with a variety of people in different countries. Ann now looks forward to taking advantage of the career opportunities that the IT Revolution has opened up.

問6
When Ann begins working, she (  ).

1. may not be in the same office as the people she works with
2. will be working at a newly designed toll-free call center
3. is likely to move the city where her employer is located
4. wants to join company where she can stay until retirement

【解説】

When Ann begins working, she (  ).
Ann が働始めるとき、彼女は(  )

Ann が出てくるのは段落 (1) と段落 (7)です。今までの問題の流れからいって、ここで段落 (1) の内容とも考えられないですね。段落 (7) を確認しましょう。

すると、8行目に However があること気づきます。however は対比・逆接の接続詞で、その後ろに置かれる文を強調するために使うことが多いです。

However, she is confident she can work as a freelance specialist in collaboration with a variety of people in different countries.
「しかしながら、彼女は違う国のさまざまな人々と協力しながら、フリーの専門家として働くことができる自信がある」

選択肢を確認しましょう。

1. may not be in the same office as the people she works with
彼女が一緒に働いている人々と同じオフィスにいない可能性があります
2. will be working at a newly designed toll-free call center
新しく設計されたフリーダイヤルのコールセンターで作業します
3. is likely to move the city where her employer is located
彼女の雇用主がいる都市を移動する可能性があります
4. wants to join company where she can stay until retirement
定年まで滞在できる会社に参加したい

色々な国の人と働くということは、場所が違うということです。なので正解は「1」です。

may not be in the same office as the people she works with
「彼女と一緒に働く人々と同じ事務所にいないかもしれない」

この英文の as は関係代名詞で、the same を伴う名詞を先行詞にとります。

【正解】1

問7

問題次の文章を読み、下の問の(  )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の1~4のうちから1つずつ選べ。なお(1)~(7)は段落の番号を表している。

(1) My niece, Ann, is in her third year at university. She has recently started her job search. When she entered the university, she wanted to be an architect and planned to apply for work in an architectural firm. But as she prepared for her job search, she learned that the way people work has changed a lot in the last few years. She discovered that much of the change has occurred because of what is called the IT Revolution. The “IT (Information Technology) Revolution” refers to the dramatic change in the way information is perceived and used in today’s world.
(2) Over the past 12 to 15 years, the amount and types of data available on the Internet and, in particular, the speed at which we can process the data, have increased to an extent few people could have imagined. These developments have led to new ways of thinking about how we use information and how we work in information-rich environments. Simply put, doing business no longer relies on location; new information-sharing software has made cooperation at a distance convenient and efficient.
(3) As a result, many new business models have appeared. One such model is a large corporation arranging to have another company, often located in a different country, perform essential tasks. This became possible with the growth of reliable and secure communications and the ability to move massive amounts of data over long distances in an instant. An early example of this arrangement is in the field of accounting. A company in the United States, for instance, first scans all its bills, orders, and wage payments into the computer and sends the documents to an accounting center in, say, Costa Rica. Basic accounting activity is then carried out at that site. Next, the data is returned via the Internet to the original company, where high-level analysis is done.
(4) Another example of this type of arrangement is reliance on overseas call centers, which have become increasingly common. It has become possible for a telephone operator in India to answer a customer-service call from anywhere in the world, respond directly to the customer and offer a satisfactory solution, at a far lower cost to the company than ever before. Many large companies now depend on such call centers. Today in Japan, when you call a toll-free number, there is a chance that someone in Chingtao, China will answer the phone in Japanese to help solve your problem.
(5) A second business model made possible by the IT Revolution is one in which work is divided into smaller, more specific tasks performed by individuals in different geographical locations. For example, freelance specialists who may be living at a great distance from each other can work together to produce a new semiconductor design. A member of the group living in California does some initial work on the project and uploads the result onto a server. A colleague in Japan spends the day making further additions to the design. Next someone in Israel accesses it and does his/her portion of the job. Finally the group member in California downloads it and gives it a final check. Thus, freelance specialists in different parts of the world collaborate to complete a single project.
(6) A similar example is that of a commercial artist who works in the privacy of her beachside home in Hawaii to create a mail-order catalog for a client in Paris. She uses pictures taken by a photographer in Australia, adds text composed by a writer in Canada, includes artwork she created on her computer, and sends the finished product out to the client for final approval. All this is done digitally and according to each worker’s own schedule. In this way, the best talent in the world can be chosen for each task.
(7) With the knowledge she has acquired in the course of her job search, Ann now understands how the nature of work has changed as a result of the IT Revolution. Although she is still interested in architecture, Ann now realizes that this field offers a broader variety of opportunities. Rather than studying architectural design itself, Ann has decided to become an
expert in the specifications and materials that architects need for their designs. She also now knows that there is often not enough work in one office for a specialist of type. However, she is confident she can work as a freelance specialist in collaboration with a variety of people in different countries. Ann now looks forward to taking advantage of the career opportunities that the IT Revolution has opened up.

問7
Discussed in the article is the IT Revolution’s (  ).

1. enormous impact on the way workers, rather than companies, think about work
2. limited impact on the way workers, rather than companies, think about work
3. profound impact on the way workers and companies think about work
4. slight impact on the way workers and companies think about work

【解説】

Discussed in the article is the IT Revolution’s (  ).
この記事で説明されているのは、IT革命の(  )です。

この問題文は倒置が起こっています。
普通の語順に直すと IT Revolution’s (  ) is discussed in the articles.
つまり「IT革命の(  )がこの記事の中で論じられている」という意味です。

選択肢は、こうなっています。

1. enormous impact on the way workers, rather than companies, think about work
企業ではなく労働者が仕事について考える方法に多大な影響を与える
2. limited impact on the way workers, rather than companies, think about work
企業ではなく労働者が仕事について考える方法への限定的な影響
3. profound impact on the way workers and companies think about work
労働者や企業の仕事に対する考え方に大きな影響を与える
4. slight impact on the way workers and companies think about work
労働者や企業の仕事に対する考え方へのわずかな影響

選択肢の文の真ん中あたりを見ると、「1」「2」のグループと「3」「4」のグループに分けられることがわかります。

「1」「2」には「workers, rather than companies / 会社というより働く人」とあります。
「3」「4」は「workers and companies / 働く人と会社」とあります。

段落 (3) (4) では会社の例、段落 (5) (6) では働く人の例であったので、特にどちらかに偏っているわけではないですね。よって選択肢「1」「2」を消去することができます。

次に選択肢「3」と「4」を比べると、3.は profound impact 「大きな影響」となっており、4.は slight impact 「少しの影響」となっています。(slight は light が「軽い」から推測できるかな?)

問1でもやりましたが、IT革命は「the dramatic change / 劇的な変化」です。ということは正解は「3」ですね。

【正解】3

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